Вид реферата: топик
Дисциплина: Иностранный язык
Формат: Microsoft Word документ
Сжатие: ZIP архив
Создан: 4 ноября 2007 года
One of the main differences of the Internet from all rest, that is
connected to computers, is that for successful work with it(him), generally
speaking, it is not necessary of any books. Internet can serve both
directory, and tutorial, and encyclopedia itself. However on the initial
stage, as it seems, the advantage(benefit) of the book, distinctly and is
accessible of a stating basis, can be rather significant. Such book I also
have tried to write. But before you will get acquainted to it(her) more
close, let's try to answer on the most important question, which, probably,
you already set to yourselves:
The Internet: that it, at last, such
More or less scientific definition of the Internet, which the books and
clauses on this subject are filled, certainly with, have the value. But the
most simple explanation suffices for our purposes while: the Internet is a
set of computers connected with each other by channels of
communication(connection), plus a set of standard rules, on which they
exchange by the information. Thus channels of communication(connection),
perhaps, even are less important, than rule of data transfer on them, named
in the Internet by the protocols. If even two computers cooperate on one of
such protocols is already present Internet.
The invention and the perfection of modems - special devices allowing the
computer to send the information on the phone, - has opened doors in the
Internet to huge quantity(amount) of the people, at which is not present.
Any special network equipment, and there is only personal computer and
telephone socket nearby.
Both Internet, and the modems for personal computers exist already rather
long. However only at all for a long time - about 1990 - the Internet has
typed(collected), at last critical weight of the users and resources
necessary for network revolution, occurring on our eyes. The high-speed
modems allowing the usual users of personal computers without restrictions
to enjoy by all boons of the Internet, have appeared even later. And the
system World Wide Web (WWW, or "«World wide web"), invented in 1993 and
former firstly only by one of many components of a network, has
borrowed(occupied) a leading position and began to define(determine) the
person of the Internet literally in last years - two. By and large, the
world Internet boom now in the heat - and very much was lucky(carried) to
you, that you were not late almost to the beginning of performance.
The Internet is, first of all huge set of computers and programs. Among
last you will find not only such, which are able well to decide(solve) your
concrete tasks, but also is greater such, whose abilities it will be
firstly complex(firstly difficult) even to present to you, probably. The
Internet connection gives you a unique opportunity, what imperfect was your
computer to have a look per the twenty first century and independently to
accustom with such concepts, as « world cyber – social », « virtual money
», « information environment(Wednesday) habitation». Item, - word, with all
of subjects, about what so love to write now journalists.
However it only part of the answer on a question « that such the Internet
». The Internet today is not only huge quantity(amount) of computers, but
also the improbable quantity(amount) of the people, for which network is an
essentially new way of dialogue almost not having of analogues in the
material world. The man - essence social, and dialogue with itself similar
- one of his(its) first needs(requirements). Perhaps, till now still any
technical invention (short of the telephone) does not make such revolution
in this ancient as the world employment(occupation) - dialogue of the man
with the man.
Certainly, what exactly will interest you in the Internet first of all -
people or computers, - depends only on you. The ancient metaphor of the
book as models of world, perhaps, deserves reconsideration - now on a role
of such model computer approaches much better. When the speech goes about
millions computers and their users all over the world, connected in a
uniform network, the metaphor this already ceases be simply metaphor. That
is why by exaggeration will not tell, that, leave in the Internet, you do
(make) for yourselves accessible the whole world.
1. Basic protocols in Internet and search in them.
Internet contains vast quantity (amount) of the information, on this in
it(him) it is difficult to find that that is necessary if not to know where
to search. The place of a presence(finding) (or address) each resource
defines(determines) it(him) URL. In URL the type of the protocol indicating
on what server contains the access is carried out: on WWW (on which
specifies recording: http), Gopher, ftp, telnet, or WAIS, it depends on
that what type of the information you will transfer. The network protocol -
set of the precisely certain rules: how to request, to make out and to send
on a network the given version of the information
Millions computers are joined(attached) to a network Internet and many from
them have interesting opportunities.
It appears, is quite feasible to reach these computers to look databases,
available in them, and programs. The special program telnet allows to
transform your computer into the client telnet for a data access and
programs in numerous servers telnet. For example researcher regularly can
work on several computers, which managers nominate to it(him) a special
name and password.
In itself telnet - the communication facility is simple; neither any of the
own interface, nor opportunities of search it(he) does not give.
Having contacted the help telnet with the removed machine and having
entered in a field of search the entrance name (login) and password
(password) you communicate with this machine and programs on further to
it(her), and telnet cares only of maintenance of communication(connection)
Certainly, many storehouses of the information, which were originally
served by the special programs with access on telnet now it is possible to
transfer(translate) on WWW, that not seldom and is done(made). However
there were also such which on former give the services only on telnet
(especially among the catalogues and information services of libraries).
Standard the link on telnet connection with some site Internet (i.e. URL-
the address of this connection) looks so:
telnet: // < the address of the server >
Practically information is stored(kept) in the computer world as files. On
this for itself заре Internet the special means for an exchange of files on
a network - network protocol FTP (File Transfer Protocol) has appeared.
The quantity(amount) of files accessible on sites of all world on anonymous
FTP is measured in astronomical figures and constantly grows. Besides Word
Wide Web allows without any alteration existing FTP of archives, to supply
with their descriptions of any degree of detail and convenient hypertext
But how to learn(find out) where to address in searches of the necessary
The search on a name of a file on all anonymous FTP-sites of the world can
be carried out with the help of system Archie. She(it) is developed by the
several programmers from university Magellan in Canada and carries out
indexation of stations FTP, showing files, accessible in everyone station.
Archie informs several millions files taking place in more thousand
stations FTP, and gives a surprisingly fast way of search of that place,
where it is necessary to be directed for reception of a file, interesting
for you. The search in a database of the server Archie is made with the
help of keywords, which in this case represent simply names of files or
fragments of names.
Now Archie is accessible through WWW. It WWW page with the form in which
the keywords and options of search are specified.
Though the name of a file almost always has a certain attitude(relation) to
his(its) contents, to use Archie for thematic search of the programs does
not cost. This system will be useful, if you really know a name of the
necessary file or part of a name. On the other hand if you search for the
program, which has the standard reduced name, that is some probability that
this reduction will be present and at a name of a file, so it is possible
to try to find such file with the help Archie. The results of search
represent the list of FTP-sites and complete names of files on these sites.
The name of a file serves the link to this file, so the click on a name
will allow at once receiving a file from the given site. And domes the
address of FTP-archive allocated by a large greasy font will transfer you
to the initial catalogue of file system on this archive.
Archie the list into the list into the list into the list into the
URL-address indicating FTP-connection, owes, as a minimum to include a word
“ftp” as the left part and address of the site in right:
ftp: // < the address of the server >.
Almost all information resources Internet give an opportunity of automatic
search, but only in one of them - in system WAIS (Wide Area Information
Server, global information server) - the keyword search, is the basic
method of access to the information.
The system WAIS represents the huge distributed(allocated) database, i.e.
the separate parts of this database are located on different net points
worldwide. The program - client for work with servers WAIS not only is able
to communicate with them under the special protocol, but also stores(keeps)
the list of all databases WAIS with their addresses and names, and
sometimes and with the brief descriptions. There it is possible to find
archives of news, every possible catalogues, directories, collections of
scientific clauses and abstracts, indexes and much another. Practically any
information, for which the database is the convenient form by performances
which is interesting enough to a wide audience, can be submitted in WAIS.
The database WAIS is so great, that idle time of recordings - extremely
unpromising way of access to the information. Therefore in WAIS the rather
complex(difficult) method of keyword search and phrases is applied. The
documents received as a result of search, are sorted by the WAIS-server by
quantity(amount) of entry in them of keywords and on, as far as is complete
in each of them all set of the ordered keywords is submitted. Such system
is capable to give good results, is especial if to break process of search
at some stages.
The first stage of search usually is the search special in a database under
the name “directory-of-servers”, which contains small on volume of the
description (abstracts) of all other bases WAIS. Thus it is better to
specify not those keywords, which at the end interest you, and those
general(common) concepts concerning your field of knowledge.
Having chosen on the first stage of one or several bases, it is possible to
begin search actually of documents - that also it is possible to do(make)
in some calls, getting acquainted after each search with results and
changing the list of keywords, the necessary document will not be found
yet. Besides WAIS has one useful property: if at the next stage of search
you have found the document, which contents are especially close that you
search, it(he) can be added to the list of the relevant documents. In
result at the following stage WAIS will find the documents, not only
containing a set of your keywords, but also similar on the dictionary
structure on those texts, which you have specified as most suitable.
Though Netscape is capable to work with servers WAIS, for this purpose
it(he) should know the address of the special proxy for the protocol WAIS,
of which your provider can not appear. The special WAIS-clients working
including under Windows, not only convenient for interactive search in
databases, but also allows to manage services any of the server –
URL-address for WAIS looks as:
wais: // < the address of the server > / < the name of base >
Each of the considered till now Internet protocols quite could exist in
itself: telnet gives access to the programs, FTP - to files, WAIS - to
databases. All these systems were created both developed almost
independently from each other and put before itself the concrete purpose -
to construct the mechanism of access to one certain kind of resources.
However as Internet of dews also became complicated, it(he) pushed the
people to an idea, that the information on a nature is uniform and what not
too reasonably to divide her(it) on different “ kinds of resources ” with
unlike methods of access. By the end of 80-s' years the idea of a new
universal remedy of work with the diverse information was carried in air.
The first system called to embody for life these dreams began Gopher,
appeared on light 1991 at the American university of state Minnesota.
Fundamental concept incorporated in its(her) basis was structure enclosed
each other menu.
Having communicated Gopher- by the client with one of Gopher-servers, you
first of all get in the root, main menu of this server. Having oriented in
his(its) contents and passing further from one submenu in another, it is
possible to engage actually in search of the information. The information
in system Gopher is organized strictly hierarchically, “from the general to
the particular”. On each step the server sends yours Gopher - client not
only contents of the next menu, but also service information on, where
there are objects appropriate to items it the menu. The client deduces on
the screen only transfer of items, but when you choose one from them,
it(he), having verified with the information, available at him(it), or will
send on any of Gopher - servers search about distribution of the following
of the menu, or will try to establish FTP- or telnet- connection with some
Obviously from all information tools Internet Gopher most of all is similar
on WWW - both these systems are called to serve the shell with diverse
resources. However Gopher is deprived of those rich representational means,
which do(make) WWW not only information catalogue, but also new mass media
and even by a new genre of art. It is possible to tell, that Gopher is
“subset” WWW - that very much simplifies integration itself Gopher as one
of kinds of resources in WWW. Practically all that is told about work with
Gopher - by the client fairly and for travel on system Gopher with the help
of a browser WWW.
URL of one the menu consists of items Gopher - from addresses Gopher- of
the server and listed those items of the menu, which will result you in
gopher: // < the address of the server > / < item of the menu >
In spite of the fact that per the first years of the existence Gopher has
won the large popularity, the need in any became ripe more simple and in
too time to maximum universal system, in which communication(connection)
between resources would be more free and associative. Such system was
developed in 1993 and is named World Wide Web (WWW). System WWW to be under
construction on concept of a hypertext, or, is exacter than hypermedia. The
hypertext is a text of which component are connected with each other and to
other texts with the help of the links. The hypermedia is that that will
turn out from a hypertext if to replace in his(its) definition a word
“text” on “ any kinds of the information ”: the graphic images, video,
World Wide Web “world wide web” means literally. Why she(it) so refers to
as. As it is clear from the name, she(it) is global. You not always know in
what part of light there is a computer, to which you are connected. You can
begin to read page Web in Dallas, then to proceed(pass) in Australia, and
all this on one pressing of the button of the mouse. WWW is similar to a
web. It is a complex(difficult) information network connected hypermedia by
communications(connections). WWW allows to not refuse information resources
already saved in Internet, other means, accessible with the help, - FTP,
telnet and Gopher. It is more than that, the work with these resources
through WWW is so convenient, that, say, FTP-clients, former at one time by
separate class of the programs, now are used only by few.
And nevertheless main in World Wide Web is not convenience of access to FTP- of archive and Gopher-menu. The majority of servers of system WWW offer
the information, which without WWW hardly in general when or would get in a
network. Speed of creation and updating, the rich representational
opportunities in a combination to ease of access and huge audience have
made WWW by new mass media. The start WWW-servers and creation of WWW-pages
already has turned of a style to new business - with all that is peculiar
to modern business: by a payment for square centimeters of the advertising
On the other hand, the fast distribution of system so naturally uniting
diverse resources, was promoted not in the last instance by its(her) origin
not in недрах of a business concern, and in scientific establishment -
European laboratory of physics of particles, which employees did not begin
to do(make) of secrets of the development and have not tried at all on
it(her) to grow rich.
Fortunately, nature WWW as first of all means of search and organization of
the information allows to hope, that this remarkable invention to not turn
to the tool of only one commerce and advertising.
The servers and clients WWW communicate among themselves under the special
protocol HTTP (Hyper Transfer Protocol, hypertext transfer protocol). URL
for WWW looks as:
http: // < the address of the server >
To pass from one page Web to another - an interesting way of research World
Wide Web, however you early or late need to find something concrete. But
thus it to make it will be not possible. In Internet there are special
tools of Web-search.
Tools of search in WWW.
Tools of search of the information in Internet, constructed on different
principles and pursuing the different purpose, exists much. But all unites
them that they settle down on the specially allocated network computers
with powerful channels of communication(connection), serve every minute
huge quantity(amount) of the visitors and require(demand) of the owners of
significant expenses on support and updating. Nevertheless, almost all of
them respond on searches of the users completely бескорыстно, and the
sponsors and advertisers pay for this pleasure. On scales of influence on
network community of retrieval systems, undoubtedly, are one of corner
The classification of retrieval systems is more convenient for building all
on the basis of on the tax and processing of the information given to the
users, - or else how many is automated in them, who types(collects) a
database, in which the search is made: the people or computers.
2. Tools of search
Conditionally tools of search are subdivided into search means of a help
type (directories) and retrieval systems in the pure state (search
2.1 Thematic catalogues
The search tools of the first type name subject, or thematic catalogues
more often. The company owning such catalogue, continuously conducts huge
work, investigating, describing, cataloguing and displaying on half-glasses
contents of WWW-servers and other network resources scattered worldwide.
Result her(it) titanium of efforts is the constantly updated hierarchical
catalogue, at the top level the most general(common) categories, such as
“business” are assembled, "”science", "”art" etc., and the elements of the
lowermost level represent the links to separate WWW-pages and server
together with the brief description of their contents.
Guarantees that such catalogue really covers all contents WWW, nobody will
give, however possible(probable) not the completeness and selection of
materials is with interest expiated there, that for the present not under
force to any computer - intelligence of selection.
The subject catalogues give also opportunity of keyword search. However
search this occurs not in contents of WWW-servers, and in their brief
descriptions stored(kept) in the catalogue.
The subject catalogues Internet can be counted literally on fingers, as
their creation and support require(demand) huge expenses. To most known
concern Yahoo, WWW Virtual Library, Galaxy and some other.
Is most popular in the population Internet the catalogue Yahoo. On the
first page Yahoo, located to the address http://www.yahoo.com, you receive
access to two basic method of work with the catalogue - keyword search and
hierarchical tree of sections.
Having begun descent(release) on sections of the catalogue, you will see,
that each section contains the precisely same field for input of keywords
and button Search, starting search.
Each section can include as transfer included in him(it) and actually links
to pages concerning at once all section, with their brief descriptions.
Instead of travel you can at once get in the necessary place of the
catalogue Yahoo with the help of search. Having entered one or several
keywords divided(shared) by blanks, in a line of search and having pressed
the button Search, you receive the list all in Yahoo, that comprises the
specified keywords. This list will be divided(shared) into two parts -
“categories” and “sites”.
If total of the links returned as a result of search, exceeds 25, the list
of the links will be broken on some parts.
But not seldom happens so, that the list, given out by the machine, is very
great and to see (overlook) it(him) simply not really. An output(exit) from
this situation can become stricter selection of the information brought in
the catalogue. One of most known such systems - catalogue Magellan to the
address: http: // www.mckinley.com
This database contains the items of information on 80 thousand WWW-pages -
that very much not much in comparison with those in millions, which exist
in a network. However if Yahoo as the description of a resource uses one -
two lines of the text, the employees of system Magellan on some of pages
brought in their database, write the small reviews, and also estimate
quality of these information resources on a five-mark scale. Till past
bases of the reviews, Magellan owns as an own automatic index, for search
in which it is necessary to throw the switch under a field of input in a
rule(situation) entire database.
As a rule search represents one or several keywords divided(shared) by
The service, similar by the principles, of firm Point (http: //
www.pointcom.com) in general basic emphasis does(makes) not on search, and
on work with the thematic catalogue.
The service Point is known in a network for that its(her) employees are
constantly engaged оцениванием of network resources and conduct the lists
of those sites, which they consider(count) belong to “ to the best five
percents(interests) WWW ”.
Firm Point Conducts a shared database all “ of five-percentage WWW-pages,
where about everyone it is possible to read the detailed license.
The most old subject catalogue WWW is the catalogue Virtual Library:
http: // www.w3.org/hypertext/DataSources/bySubj ect/Overview.html
This system full enough covers a scientific layer WWW - servers of
universities, laboratories and educational institutions.
Russia-On-Line Subject Guide.
For the users in our country the certain interest can represent the
thematic catalogue Russia-On-Line Subject Guide, located to the address
http://www.online.ru/rmain. This catalogue contains rather motley assembly
of the links on foreign sources plus the thematic review of the Russian and
Russian resources WWW.
2.2. Automatic indexes.
It is possible to approach to a problem of search of the information in
Internet and on the other hand. There are programs in which have loaded
some thousand well-known URL-addresses. Being is started on the computer
with access to WWW, this program begins automatically to download from a
network the documents on it URL, and from each new document she(it) takes
all links, contained in it,(him,) and adds them in the base of addresses.
As at the end all WWW the documents are connected among themselves, early
or late such program will bypass all Internet.
Certainly, the program can not understand as or classify that she(it) sees
in a network. The programs of such type refer to as robots. They are
limited to the tax of the statistical information and construction indexes
in the texts of the documents. The database, collected by the robot, -
index - stores (keeps) in it, simply speaking, item of information on that
in what WWW-documents to contain those or other words.
Such the automatically collected index also underlies retrieval systems of
the second sort, which frequently and name - automatic indexes.
The automatic index consists of three parts: the program - robot collected
by this robot of a database and the interface for search in this base, with
which the user works. All these components quite can function without
intervention of the man.
As any classification of materials in such systems are absent, it is
necessary to resort to them only then, when you precisely know keywords
concerning that it is necessary, - we shall tell, a surname of the man or
it is enough some of rare terms from the appropriate area. If to set search
on the a little widespread words, you will have not enough life to bypass
all URL-addresses, received as a result of search, - for example, the index
of system Alta Vista contains of 11 billions words taken from 30 millions
An automatic index of WWW-pages exists much: WebCrawler, Lycos, Excite,
Inktomi, Open Text and others. Some of them (for example, Lycos) represent
more or less successful synthesis of the subject catalogue and automatic
Its(her) address http://altavista.digital.com. This system has appeared in
December 1995. She (it) one of largest on volume of indexes from all such
retrieval systems both most powerful and floppy rules of construction of
searches. Alta Vista understands two different languages of searches rather
strongly distinguished from each other. On the first page Alta Vista you
see the form for simple search (Simple Search), and the panel of heading at
the top of page contains the button Advanced Search, having pressed which,
you receive the form for complication of search.
Except for WWW-pages, Alta Vista conducts a separate index for clauses from
more than 14000 conferences Usenet (including hierarchy of groups relcom.
Search Alta Vista: that Alta Vista worked on group of words, only when they
cost(stand) beside, it is necessary to conclude this group in inverted
commas. If it is necessary to exclude from result all documents containing
a certain word, it is necessary to attribute this word with is familiar
The word without any mark works in search precisely the same as also it
with is familiar “plus”.
As against Yahoo, by default Alta Vista searches of entry of the whole
words. The ordered terms should stand in the document separately, instead
of to be a part of other chains of symbols. If you need to find of all
entry of a word, even when it is included into structure of other words,
use a symbol *. The asterisk can stand only at the end of a word, and
prevent giving many (too much) of results, Alta Vista requires(demands),
that the word which is coming to an end on *, should consist not less than
of 3 letters. Moreover, a symbol * allows to find not any termination
(ending) of a word, but only not exceeding length of five symbols and not
containing of capital letters or figures.
Results of search Alta Vista, as well as Yahoo, gives out as the list of
the links on the documents, but instead of the description of each document
near to his(its) heading you will see simply first some lines of his(its)
text. If will be found more than 10 documents, Alta Vista will break their
list on pages till 10 links on everyone. Alta Vista sorts the links so that
on the first place there were “most important” documents with your keywords
at definition of a degree of importance taking into account the following
Whether the keywords into heading of the documents enter;
Whether these words in the first several lines of the documents contain;
As far as are close to each other in the text the keywords are found out.
Info seek, entered in of operation at the end of 19996 years, is somewhat
reminiscent Alta Vista, however volume of the complete texts, surveyed by
him,(it,) of the documents yet does not exceed 30 million. Web-pages. The
address: http://www.infoseek.com. It is rather powerful system having high
speed and idle time in circulation. Opportunities of drawing up of search
almost same, as well as in Alta Vista, but not so rich. At almost complete
preservation of values of marks "«plus", "«minus" and "«inverted commas",
sensitivity to a difference header both lower case letters and opportunity
to limit search to fragments Web- of pages, Info seek yet has no ability to
define(determine) beside the worth terms (there is no operator NEAR), to
limit search by date of updating a source and, main, to truncate
terminations(ending) the key terms.
But the given retrieval system contains weight of facultative functions.,
for example, opportunity concerns to those to define(determine)
quantity(amount) of the links in WWW on concrete page, that is to judge, as
far as she(it) is popular or, on the contrary, to find out, how many links
to external pages contain on the given site, more correctly, how many from
them are reflected in index files Ultra seek. Use of special function Image
seek allows to find in Internet of the image (figures, photo) on the
certain subject. Info seek has also one of the best directories of
resources of a Network.
By one of powerful search means in World Wide Web can attribute (relate)
HotBot, containing the items of information on the complete texts 110
million. Pages. The address: http://www.hotbot.com. HotBot belongs to the
newest systems, therefore his (its) profound search gives amazingly ample
opportunities for detailed elaboration of search. It is reached (achieved)
at the expense of use of the multistage menu offering various variants of
drawing up of the search instruction. It is possible to carry out search on
presence in the document one or several terms, search on a separate phase,
search of the concrete person or links to the certain electronic address.
For the greater detailed elaboration of search probably application of
conditions SHOULD (can contain), MUST (should necessarily contain), MUST
NOT (should not contain) in relation to any concepts. Besides HotBot
represents возможность ограничить search by date of creation or last
updating of the document, on geographic a rule(situation) of the server.
Top of service opportunities is the search of the documents containing
certain types of files, for example video. For this purpose it is necessary
only to make a mark in special item of the menu of search.
It is one more tool of search such as search-bot (search the robot).
The address: http: // www.webcrawler.com. The search here is very simple.
Enter maximal keywords into a field of search, press Search.
It is the large database that contents of all pages, found by Web.
The address: http://www.lycos.com.
World Wide Web Worm.
You will find this tool of search on
http://www.cs.colorado.edu/home/mcbryan/wwww.html. It is one more extensive
index of sites Web.
In each concrete case it is expedient to use the tool of search. You should
try to carry out(spend) search through one tool and, if you have not
received results, to pass to another. But nevertheless what tool to use?
First of all it is better to take advantage of the thematic catalogue such
as Yahoo, size at them rather small, but the speed is great. If to find the
necessary information it was not possible, it speaks that you are
interested in a too narrow subject, or badly correspond with your subject
the keywords, chosen by you. It does not mean, that the necessary
information in WWW is not present - it will be simple to find her(it) more
difficultly. For its(her) search to you will be reached to take advantage
of more primitive, more automatic and consequently by more universal
systems such as Alta Vista.
2.3. Russian retrieval systems
The retrieval systems of global scale concentrate the basic attention on
English resources of a Network. The task of search of the information on
servers within the limits of the separate countries is carried out with
systems of local character specially adapted for features of concrete
languages. There are similar search means and in Russia. All of them are
united by (with) an opportunity of processing of materials in all Cyrillic
codes*. However on capacity and level of offered service the Russian
retrieval systems considerably differ from each other.
Rambler, "Апорт" and "Яndex" now concern to leading group systems.
Among favorites is allocated Rambler (http://www.rambler.ru), becoming with
the first professional domestic retrieval system. This system provides full
text search on 3 million. Pages located on more than 15 thousand Web sites
of Russia and the countries of near foreign countries. Besides Web-servers,
the week archive of news of hierarchy relcom is surveyed also.
Rambler has close to an optimum conclusion of results of search. Even in a
normal form the link on found object inserts the complete information. The
system is designed in such a manner that the same document in the various
coding is shown in the various coding are shown only once, and his(its)
concrete addresses are summarized in the list. it’s a reduces time on
analyze of the received results because of absence of duplication of the
The main lack Rambler consists in impossibility to carry out search on the
whole phase or even to specify in searches limiting distance of the
required terms from each other. The casual combination of completely untied
words results in distribution of the links on the documents, are absolutely
not relevant to search.
The retrieval system Апорт (http://www.апорт.ru) is supplied with weight of
various functions carrying her(it) number user-friendliest.
One consists of the main advantages Апорт in ample opportunities of drawing
up of search. Besides the traditional operators "both" and “or”, search on
the whole phase, the system is capable to isolate combinations of the terms
located in the text by a number (line) with each other. Апорт offers an
opportunity of machine translation of search with Russian on the English
language and on the contrary. Both Rambler, and Апорт are capable to
allocate the same document in the various coding and to give out the link
to him (it) only of time, listing(transferring) concrete addresses in the
list URL. Unfortunately, thus the items of information on the out-of-date
versions of the same page in time do not leave which are listed
(transferred) as existing, having a difference only in date of updating.
One more lack of this system is not always correct processing of the names
of pages, because of what as a result of search the document without the
name » frequently is underlined «.
Retrieval system Яndex (http://www.yandex.ru), where besides servers of
The main distinctive feature of this system is the deep morphological
analysis of the process able terms. The most powerful linguistics allows to
take into account practically all possible (probable) shades of the use of
keywords and to make search maximum precisely. Яndex has the good mechanism
of recognition of one document in the several coding or on mirror servers.
After leading Russian тройкой there are some more search means, among which
“ the Russian machine of search ” (http://search.interrussia.com), "«TELA-
search" (http://tela.dux.ru/) and Russian Internet Search
(http://www.search.ru). While all these servers do not differ neither
breadth of search, nor by comfort, and can be used only as addition to
conducting search means.
The search service in the Russian block Internet, as well as all over the
world, develops promptly. There is no doubt, that in the near future
parameters of existing systems will be raised, the new generations of
search means giving to the users still (even) the large opportunities will