Тема: Our country
Вид реферата: топик
Дисциплина: Иностранный язык
Формат: Microsoft Word документ
Сжатие: ZIP архив
Создан: 8 января 2007 года
- Where is Russia situated?
- Russia stretches over a vast
expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. It is the world's largest country.
Russia covers almost twice the territory of either the United States or China.
In the west Russia boarders on Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus,
Ukraine, and Poland through Kaliningrad province. In the south our country
boarders on Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea.
- What is Russia washed by?
- Russia is washed by twelve seas
and three oceans. It confronts the Baltic Sea in the west. The Black, Caspian,
and Azov Seas wash Russia in the south. The Arctic Ocean and conjoined seas
such as the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian Seas are in the north.
The Pacific Ocean and conjoined seas including the Bering, Okhotsk, and
Japanese Seas wash Russia in the east.
- What are Russia's main regions?
- Russia's main regions are the
Russian (or East European) Plain, the Ural Mountains, the West Siberian Plain,
the Central Siberian Plateau, and the Far East.
- What can you tell us about each
- The Russian Plain takes up the
European part of Russia. There are low, rolling uplands and broad rivers there.
In the north the relief of the plain is scattered with lakes and swamps. In the
southern part of the plain the river basins are cut by valleys and ravines. In
the south, the Russian Plain is edged by the Caucasus Mountains between the
Black and Caspian seas. The Urals form the eastern boundary of the Russian
Plain. It is held that the Urals separate Europe from Asia. The Urals stretch
for about 2,100 km from north to south. The highest peak, Mount Narodnaya,
reaches 1,895 m, and other maintain tops range from 900 to 1,500 m. The West
Siberian Plain merges in the east with the Central Siberian Plateau. The
easternmost part of Russia is bounded by various mountain chains. The Far East
of Russia includes the Kamchatka and Chukchi peninsulas and the Kuril and
- What are the most important rivers
- The most important rivers in the
European part of Russia are the Don and Volga. The Volga River, which flows in
the Caspian Sea, is of great historic, economic, and cultural importance to
Russia. It has become the cradle of such ancient Russian cities as Vladimir,
Tver, Yaroslavl, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod. In the West Siberia the greatest
rivers are the Ob and Yenisey. They flow along the most extensive lowland in
the world. The Yenisey flows into the Kara Sea.
- What is the deepest lake in
- The Baikal is the deepest lake in
- What can you say about the
population of Russia?
- Russia ranks sixth in the world in
the size of its population. The great majority of the population of Russia are
Russians. Russia is inhabited by sixty other nationalities, and about twenty
five of these minorities have their own autonomous republics within the Russian
Federation. The population in Russia is unequally distributed. The bulk of the
people live in the European part of the republic. Siberia is insufficiently
populated, though its economic development was rapid in the second half of the
20th century. The northern part of Russia is practically uninhabitable because
of the length and severity or its winter. About three-quarters of Russia's
population is classified as urban.
- What types of climate are there on
the territory of Russia?
- There are various types of climate
on the territory of Russia. Continental climate, with cold winters and mild or
warm summers prevails. Continental weather extremes increase eastward and are
obvious in eastern Siberia, which experiences bitterly cold winters. The
harshness of the Russian climate limits the amount of arable land to about
one-seventh of the total territory.
- Is Russia's flora rich?
- Different latitudinal climatic
regimes are mirrored in Russia's flora. A treeless tundra with mosses and
grasses extends along the entire Arctic coast. In the south it gives way to
taiga. This coniferous forest growing on swampy ground covers more than half of
the country. In European Russia, towards the south the taiga is replaced by a
zone of mixed coniferous and deciduous forest which in the south transfers into
mixed forest-steppe and finally into the almost treeless, grass-covered steppe.
- How is farmland used in Russia?
- About three-fifths of Russian
farmland is used to grow crop. The rest of it is given to pasture and meadow.
Grain has always been the chief product - mainly wheat, rye, barley, and oats -
along with such fodder crops as grasses, clover, root crops, and corn. Russia's
industrial crops are sunflower seeds, sugar beets, and flax. Such consumer
crops as potatoes and other vegetables are grown widely in Russia.
- What does Russia's access to the
- Russia's access to both the
Pacific and Atlantic oceans promotes the development of its fishing industry.
Russian fishing fleets ply not only the seas around Russia but also fishing
grounds off North America and West Africa. There are also important inland
fisheries on lakes and rivers. For example, the Caspian sturgeon is the source
of the finest caviar.
- Is Russia rich in natural
- Russia has the riches deposits of
mineral resources in the world. It is one of the world's biggest producers of
coal, oil and natural gas, as well as of iron ore, copper, zinc, lead, nickel,
aluminium, and tin.
- Is Russia's industry
- The development of the Russian
economy is determined by its natural resources. Russia's heavy industries are
well-developed. They produce much of the nation's steel and most of its heavy
machinery, such as steam boilers, grain-harvesting combines, automobiles,
locomotives, and machine tools. Russia's chemical industry is also well
developed. Light industry centres on the production of textiles.
- What transports are used in
- All kinds of transports are used
in Russia. Some of them are well-developed, others leave much to be desired.
Railways account for about 90 percent of the country's movement of freight. The
Trans-Siberian Railroad is rightfully famous. Highways link major cities.
Maritime transport is very important, both on sea and by river and canal.
Aeroflot is among the world's largest airlines in terms of quantity of
equipment and flights.
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